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In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square.In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior."Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970.Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts.
Over time, young Americans adopted the beliefs and practices of the new immigrants.
By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant "sophisticated; currently fashionable; fully up-to-date".
The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation.
Even the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics were also early forms of hippie culture.
The first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe.